Верхнее меню

Stages of Formation and Development of Judicial System of the Russian Federation: the First Stage – the 1990s

K.K. Lebedev
V.I. Rusakov
Senior Lecturer, Commercial Law Department, Saint-Petersburg State University, PhD in Law, Associate Professor
Senior Lecturer, Private Law Department, Admiral Makarov State University of Maritime and Inland Shipping, PhD in Law
St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg


  • court
  • judges
  • judicial system
  • courts of general jurisdiction
  • arbitration courts
  • justices of the peace
  • military courts
  • Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation
  • constitutional/statutory courts of the Russian Federation subjects
  • structure of civil proceedings
  • instances: first, appellate, cassation, supervisory
  • Judicial Department
  • bailiffs
  • arbitration courts (arbitrations)
  • advocacy
  • legislation
  • judicial practice
  • The article examines key milestones in the development of the judicial system of the Russian Federation since the independence and sovereignty of Russia in the 1990s. It stresses upon the importance of creation of a new branch of judiciary in Russia – the system of state arbitration courts and such new institutions as justice of the peace, the Сonstitutional Court of the Russian Federation and constitutional/statutory courts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The authors disclose the dual nature of the judicial system in Russia, the relationship of the judiciary with courts of arbitration (arbitration) with the importance of the participation of lawyers in the administration of justice being noted. Particular attention is given to the sequence of the development of procedure by more clear specifying the order of consideration of complaints on decisions/judgments of courts of the first instance entered and not yet entered into force. The article highlights the incompleteness of the judicial reform at this stage due to the lack of distinction of all four judicial instances: first, appellate, cassation and supervision.

    188300 Russia, Leningrad region, Gatchina, st. Roshchinskaya, 5